Biodegradable waste in a trashcan.

Food waste is an untapped energy source that mostly ends up rotting in landfills, thereby releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Food waste is difficult to treat or recycle since it contains high levels of sodium salt and moisture, and is mixed with other waste during collection. Major generators of food wastes include hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, residential blocks, cafeterias, airline caterers, food processing industries, etc.

In United States, food waste is the third largest waste stream after paper and yard waste. Around 12.7 percent of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the year 2008 was food scraps that amounted to about 32 million tons. According to EPA, about 31 million tons of food waste was thrown away into landfills or incinerators in 2008. As far as United Kingdom is concerned, households throw away 8.3 million tons of food each year. These statistics are an indication of tremendous amount of food waste generated all over the world.

The proportion of food waste in municipal waste stream is gradually increasing and hence a proper food waste management strategy needs to be devised to ensure its eco-friendly and sustainable disposal. Food waste can be recycled via:

  • In-vessel composting (IVC): A treatment that breaks down biodegradable waste by naturally occurring micro-organisms with oxygen, in an enclosed vessel or tunnel;
  • Anaerobic digestion (AD): A treatment that breaks down biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen, producing a renewable energy (biogas) that can be used to generate electricity and heat.

Currently, only about 3 percent of food waste is recycled throughout U.S., mainly through composting. Composting provides an alternative to landfill disposal of food waste, however it requires large areas of land, produces volatile organic compounds and consumes energy. Consequently, there is an urgent need to explore better recycling alternatives. Anaerobic digestion has been successfully used in several European and Asian countries to stabilize food wastes, and to provide beneficial end-products. Sweden, Austria, Denmark, Germany and England have led the way in developing new advanced biogas technologies and setting up new projects for conversion of food waste into energy.

Of the different types of organic wastes available, food waste holds the highest potential in terms of economic exploitation as it contains high amount of carbon and can be efficiently converted into biogas and organic fertilizer. Food waste can either be used as a single substrate in a biogas plant, or can be co-digested with organic wastes like cow manure, poultry litter, sewage, crop residues, abattoir wastes, etc.

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About Salman Zafar

Salman Zafar is a renowned expert in waste management, renewable energy and sustainable development. He is the Founder of EcoMENA, a Doha-based organization meant to promote sustainable development and create environmental awareness in MENA countries. Salman possesses Masters degree in Chemical Engineering from Aligarh Muslim University (Aligarh, India) and has successfully accomplished a wide range of projects, mainly in the areas of biogas technology, biomass energy, waste-to-energy and solid waste management. Salman is proactively engaged in creating mass awareness on clean energy technologies and waste management systems through his websites, blogs and articles. He has participated in various international conferences as session chair, keynote speaker and panelist. Salman is a prolific writer and has authored numerous articles in reputed journals, magazines and newsletters on renewable energy and environmental issues. He is based in India and can be reached at salman@bioenergyconsult.com or salman@ecomena.org

4 responses »

  1. satish says:

    sir, how could we find out the opportunities and possibilities in Indian market ………

  2. mariangela says:

    Dear all,
    The creation of biodigestors for house-hold process, is a reality in many countries in Asia. In Europe, UK, they are working at many universities for searching the better way to use the food waste together with other kind of wastes to feed a biodigestor for releasing CH4 for producing energy. Another possibility is use human dejects as source of waste to feed the biodigestor, but we don t know if this can be togetjer or separatly of the food waste from houses.

  3. ecoguardians says:

    Reblogged this on Eco Guardians and commented:
    We would have to concur and things are no different here in Australia but we are seeing signs that some of the business types noted are looking to change. There is also technology available nowadays to recycle at source and avoid the municipal waste streams altogether.

  4. dear salman-is possible to produce one cubic meter of biogas(80+%) from one k.g of food waste.with HRT as loe as 2 to 3 days.source-eko gea (new gen)

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