Biomass Resources in Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

The major biomass producing MENA countries are Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, Yemen, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. Traditionally, biomass energy has been widely used in rural areas for domestic purposes in the MENA region. Since most of the region is arid/semi-arid, the biomass energy potential is mainly contributed by municipal solid wastes, agricultural residues and agro-industrial wastes.

Municipal solid wastes represent the best source of biomass in MENA countries. The high rate of population growth, urbanization and economic expansion in MENA region is not only accelerating consumption rates but also accelerating the generation of municipal waste.

The food industry in MENA produces a large number of organic residues and by-products that can be used as biomass energy sources. In recent decades, the fast-growing food and beverage processing industry has remarkably increased in importance in major countries in the region.

The Middle Eastern countries have strong animal population. The livestock sector, in particular sheep and goats, plays an important role in the national economy of the MENA countries. Agriculture plays an important role in the economies of most of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Crop residues encompasses all agricultural wastes such as bagasse, straw, stem, stalk, leaves, husk, shell, peel, pulp, stubble, etc.

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